Sooner or later it happens to all of us.
Our mind wanders, our eyelids feel heavy and suddenly – if only for a split second – we find ourselves asleep at the wheel. It could be on a long, dark stretch of interstate, lulled by the endless wave of red taillights ahead or the gentle hum of the wheels on the road. Maybe it’s on a more familiar road, heading home after a party or from a long, exhausting business trip.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that, drowsy driving accounts 71,000 injuries annually. Regardless of where, when or how often it happens, one thing is clear: drowsy driving is dangerous. In fact, drowsy driving experts consider driver fatigue a serious threat. Some are saying that it requires a major public health and education campaign to counter.
“Drowsiness is similar to alcohol in how it compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, delaying reaction times, and hindering decision-making skills,” said Dr. Nathaniel Watson, president-elect of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and national spokesman for the National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project, which raises awareness of the dangers of driving while fatigued. “Drowsy driving is deadly, but it can be prevented.”
Those at highest risk of being involved in a drowsy driving accident, according to the NHTSA, include young drivers age 29 and under, especially young men; shift workers whose sleep is disrupted by working at night or working long or irregular hours, and people with untreated sleep apnea syndrome and narcolepsy.
Know the causes
Understanding what causes drowsy driving can help you prevent it.
Know the signs
How do you know if you’re too sleepy to drive? If you experience any of these warning signs, you should pull over or have a passenger take the wheel:
- You have difficulty keeping your eyes open and focused, and/or your eyelids feel heavy.
- You have difficulty keeping your head up.
- You keep yawning and rubbing your eyes.
- You can’t remember the last few miles driven.
- You miss traffic signs or drive past your intended exit.
- You feel irritable or restless.
Sleep, rumble strips and other prevention measures
Technology designed to assist drowsy drivers is also evolving and has come a long way since the introduction of rumble strips, those grooves in the pavement along the shoulder of the road intended to jolt drifting drivers awake. Manufacturer-installed anti-driver fatigue systems in vehicles are becoming increasingly popular. A 2014 article highlights some of the more notable innovations.
SEE ALSO: Top Technologies for Mature Drivers
These include a forward-facing camera that gauges steering accuracy, introduced by Volvo in 2007. And in 2009, Mercedes-Benz began offering Attention Assist, which monitors the driver’s fatigue level and drowsiness based on driver input.
More recently, a Danish firm has developed a dash-mounted device that emits auditory and visual signals that let the driver know it’s time to get off the road. The device – which resembles a hockey puck with lights – establishes the fatigue level of each driver with a series of questions before the start of a trip and by collecting personal driving data during the first few miles of a trip.
Other anti-fatigue technology currently in use by the transportation industry may one day be available to the driving public.
Optalert, an Australian company founded by sleep expert Murray Johns, makes glasses with a tiny LED built into the nosepiece of the frame that aim brief bursts of low-intensity infrared light at the driver’s eyes. A score, based on the amplitude and velocity of the driver’s blink – which is slower when drowsy – is displayed on the dashboard and in real time to a supervisor.
Another example, Seeing Machines’ Driver Safety System, uses a dash-mounted driver-facing camera to detect if the person behind the wheel is paying attention or falling asleep. Used in mining, the tracking software builds a 3-D model of a machine operator’s head using infrared lighting, then measures and analyzes changes in head position as well as rate at which the driver closes their eyes. If the system doesn’t like what it sees, the driver is alerted with visual and auditory cues as well as seat vibration.
In the absence of such gadgets, these low-tech strategies can also help prevent a fatigue-related crash.
- Schedule a break every two hours or every 100 miles
- Drink a caffeinated beverage and, since it takes about 30 minutes for caffeine to enter the bloodstream, find a safe place to take a rest while you’re waiting for the caffeine to take effect.
- Travel during times of the day when you’re normally awake, and stay overnight rather than driving straight through.
- Check with your doctor about any medications or supplements you are taking and whether they could cause drowsiness or fatigue.